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Normally this newsletter would be concerned with events in the wider world. But right now I just have to write about the shocking death — reportedly by suicide — of my former Princeton colleague, the economist Alan Krueger, at the age of 58.
I thought I knew Alan reasonably well and never saw a hint that something like this might be coming. But people’s lives often feel very different from the inside than they look on the outside.
What I can talk about is Alan’s work and why it mattered so much to other economists, myself very much included. For his research arguably did more to change how we view the economy than that of any other modern economist.
Alan’s most influential, paradigm-shifting work was his 1992 study with David Card on the effects of minimum-wage increases.
Before Card and Krueger, most economists just assumed that raising the minimum wage leads to lower employment. But Card and Krueger realized that this was a proposition you can test. Their initial study compared employment in New Jersey and Pennsylvania before and after New Jersey raised its minimum wage. And they found no adverse effect on employment — if anything, a small rise in New Jersey relative to its neighbor.
This study opened a new frontier in economic research. Economics is always bedeviled by the lack of controlled experiments; there are so many things going on in the economy that it’s hard to tell what’s causing what. But unilateral state wage hikes amount to natural experiments that tell you far more than standard economic methods.
Furthermore, this was a method that could be replicated many times, and has been over the years, right up to the recent round of minimum wage increases in a number of cities. And the preponderance of the results have confirmed Card and Krueger’s initial finding: raising minimum wages has far less negative impact on jobs than standard economics would have predicted.
This has implications that go far beyond minimum wages themselves. What Card, Krueger and the research that follows tell us is that labor markets are a lot more complicated than we thought, that market power matters a lot and that there may be much more room for public policy to raise wages in general than Econ 101 would have it.
This paper alone would secure Alan Krueger’s reputation as one of the greatest labor economists ever. But he did far more, on everything from growth and the environment to the effects of computers on wages — and he was a public servant too. He will be sorely missed.
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More on Krueger and His Work
Testimony by Arindrajit Dube, who has continued the Card-Krueger program, on what we know about the effects of minimum wage hikes. Even Krueger worried that minimum wages might go too high.
Puerto Rico has much lower productivity than the mainland United States, and it has been argued that it’s a place where the minimum wage really bites and Econ 101 reasserts itself. Alan himself suggested that it might, although he found the evidence weak. An update.
In a 2012 speech, Alan introduced what he called the “Great Gatsby Curve,” arguing that high levels of economic inequality also lead to low social mobility. The Obama White House offered a nifty explainer. The college admissions scandal actually illustrates the “Great Gatsby Curve” in action. Wealthy parents don’t usually break the law — but there are many other ways in which they use their position in a highly unequal society to buy status and wealth for their children.
Although it might not be obvious, my own recent column on robots and wages was strongly influenced by Krueger’s work. Here’s a relatively recent Times piece by Krueger that may make the link clearer.
This is an excellent thread on Alan Krueger by Susan Dynarski.
Krueger kicked up his heels a bit, too, with a paper on the economics of … rock music.
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东方心经彩图2016年100期【新】【书】《【萌】【王】》【已】【发】，【欢】【迎】【收】【藏】。 【一】【行】【字】【或】【者】【一】【句】【话】，【一】【张】【图】【片】【或】【者】【一】【篇】【文】【章】，【一】【段】【视】【频】【或】【者】【一】【款】【游】【戏】。 【智】【慧】【生】【命】【创】【造】【这】【些】【信】【息】【产】【物】，【使】【用】【这】【些】【信】【息】【产】【物】【的】【时】【候】，【都】【会】【产】【生】【相】【应】【的】【信】【息】【能】【量】。 【现】【代】【文】【明】【社】【会】【的】【信】【息】【大】【爆】【炸】，【产】【生】【的】【海】【量】【信】【息】【能】【量】，【孕】【育】【出】【了】【将】【信】【息】【具】【现】【化】【的】【映】【像】【世】【界】。 【意】【识】【往】【返】【于】【现】【实】【和】
《【牧】【神】【记】》【确】【实】【有】【蛮】【多】【可】【以】【学】**【地】【方】，【正】【在】【取】【经】 ——————— 【前】【面】【的】【章】【节】【整】【理】【完】【毕】【了】，【可】【以】【一】【看】。 ———————
“【自】【己】【动】【手】，【丰】【衣】【足】【食】。【你】【再】【不】【下】【来】，【待】【会】【没】【得】【吃】！” “【你】……”【叶】【清】【沐】【猛】【地】【将】【双】【眼】【睁】【开】，【瞬】【间】【清】【醒】【了】，【从】【床】【上】【弹】【了】【起】【来】，“【你】【给】【我】【等】【着】！” 【此】【时】，【正】【在】【小】【文】【家】【的】【夜】【倾】【暮】【嘴】【角】【微】【扬】，【贴】【在】【耳】【边】【上】【的】【手】【机】【仅】【剩】【下】【嘟】【嘟】【的】【忙】【音】，【电】【话】【明】【显】【被】【她】【挂】【掉】【了】。 “【怎】【么】【样】？【小】【清】【沐】【下】【来】【没】？”【梁】【小】【文】【抬】【头】【看】【了】【他】【一】【眼】，【洗】
【没】【过】【了】【多】【久】，【这】【样】【的】【一】【个】【黑】【夜】【总】【算】【是】【来】【临】【了】，【胖】【达】【猛】【地】【将】【他】【紧】【闭】【着】【的】【眼】【睛】【张】【了】【开】【来】。 【此】【时】，【其】【他】【的】【那】【一】【些】【大】【熊】【猫】【都】【已】【经】【是】【陷】【入】【了】【深】【深】【的】【睡】【眠】，【看】【样】【子】【是】【不】【可】【能】【发】【现】【胖】【达】【的】【离】【开】【了】。 【而】【就】【在】【这】【样】【的】【一】【个】【时】【候】，【在】【胖】【达】【的】【面】【前】，【出】【现】【了】【一】【个】【黢】【黑】【的】【时】【空】【裂】【缝】，【不】【需】【要】【胖】【达】【的】【提】【醒】，【现】【在】【的】【系】【统】【就】【已】【经】【是】【做】【好】【了】【准】【备】，东方心经彩图2016年100期【原】【野】【舀】【了】【一】【勺】【姜】【汤】，【放】【到】【嘴】【边】【吹】【凉】【了】，【又】【在】【唇】【边】【试】【了】【试】【温】【度】，【这】【才】【把】【勺】【递】【到】【胡】【晓】【璃】【嘴】【边】。 “【张】【嘴】。” 【胡】【晓】【璃】【觉】【得】【有】【些】【别】【扭】，“【我】【自】【己】【可】【以】……” 【还】【没】【说】【完】【就】【被】【原】【野】【给】【打】【断】【了】。 “【闭】【嘴】。” 【胡】【晓】【璃】【撇】【了】【撇】【嘴】，【只】【好】【一】【勺】【一】【勺】【地】【喝】【着】【姜】【汤】。 【原】【野】【这】【幅】【温】【柔】【细】【心】【的】【模】【样】【要】【是】【被】【他】【那】【帮】【战】【友】【看】【到】，【估】【计】
【说】【完】【之】【后】，【徐】【康】【锦】【还】【暖】【心】【的】【安】【慰】【自】【己】【的】【老】【弟】【道】。 “【不】【过】【你】【并】【不】【要】【因】【为】【这】【样】【就】【感】【到】【自】【卑】，【虽】【然】【我】【是】【比】【你】【优】【秀】【一】【点】，【但】【是】【最】【主】【要】【的】【问】【题】【的】【是】【在】【那】【小】【姑】【娘】【身】【上】，【建】【议】【你】【找】【个】【时】【间】【说】【清】【楚】。” “【毕】【竟】【长】【痛】【不】【如】【短】【痛】【啊】！” 【徐】【康】【锦】【不】【给】【徐】【康】【凛】【说】【话】【的】【就】【会】，【就】【说】【了】【一】【大】【堆】。 【徐】【康】【凛】：… 【你】【安】【慰】【我】【就】【安】【慰】【我】，【为】
【这】【个】【世】【界】【上】【永】【远】【都】【没】【有】【永】【恒】【的】【敌】【人】，【在】【利】【益】【面】【前】，【敌】【人】【会】【转】【变】【成】【朋】【友】，【同】【样】【也】【在】【利】【益】【面】【前】，【朋】【友】【也】【会】【转】【换】【为】【敌】【人】。 【既】【然】【骷】【髅】【协】【会】【在】【之】【前】【很】【长】【一】【段】【时】【间】【没】【有】【对】【墨】【晨】【与】【展】【涛】【下】【手】，【那】【这】【一】【次】【也】【绝】【不】【会】【是】【鸿】【门】【宴】，【因】【为】【要】【杀】【两】【人】【早】【就】【可】【以】【动】【手】【了】，【大】【把】【的】【机】【会】。 【而】【社】【长】【大】【人】【会】【选】【择】【面】【见】【两】【人】，【那】【就】【说】【明】【这】【两】【人】【目】【前】【还】【有】
【地】【球】【宇】【宙】【天】【元】【仙】【界】。 【正】【在】【改】【造】【仙】【界】【的】【刘】【心】【魔】【突】【然】【停】【下】【了】【手】【中】【的】【动】【作】。 【片】【刻】【后】，【刘】【心】【魔】【仿】【佛】【遇】【到】【了】【天】【大】【的】【喜】【事】，【仰】【天】【大】【笑】！ “【哈】【哈】……【哈】【哈】……【刘】【飞】，【你】【终】【于】【死】【了】！” 【笑】【声】【直】【达】【仙】【界】【三】【界】，【震】【动】【九】【州】，【待】【笑】【声】【停】【止】【后】，【天】【元】【仙】【界】【出】【现】【了】【一】【扇】【通】【天】【连】【地】【石】【门】。 【刘】【心】【魔】【看】【到】【这】【扇】【出】【现】【门】，【非】【但】【不】【惊】，【反】【而】